The new WorldCat.org expands the impact of libraries everywhere


Cathy King, Executive Director of Delivery Services at OCLC, highlights how the new WorldCat.org expands the impact of libraries everywhere, including new features and opportunities to engage.

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What happens when we sleep?


Sleep is central to maintaining your physical and mental health, but many people don’t sleep enough. We all do it, but what happens to us when we sleep? Every night almost everyone on the planet enters into a state of unconsciousness and paralysis – but what is really happening inside the body when we drift off, and what’s the impact if we don’t get enough sleep? Sleep is regulated by your circadian rhythm, or body clock located in the brain. The body clock responds to light hews ramping up production of the hormone melatonin at night, and switching it off when it senses light. There are four stages of sleep that the body experiences in cycles throughout the night. On a good night we cycle through these stages four or five times. Stages one and two are light sleep. This is a transition from being awake to falling asleep. Heart rate and breathing begin to slow, body temperature falls, and muscles may twitch. Stage 3 is sometimes referred to as Delta sleep – because of the slow Delta brainwaves that are released during this stage. This is the first stage of deep sleep where our cells produce the most growth hormone to service bones and muscles, allowing the body to repair itself. Stage 4 is where we begin to dream. The body creates chemicals that render it temporarily paralyzed so that we do not act out our dreams. In this stage, the brain is extremely active and our eyes, although closed, dark back and forth as if we were awake. Humans roughly spend one third of their lives asleep. Modern lifestyles, stress and the proliferation of Technology, mean that people is sleeping far less today than they were a century ago. Sleeping less than seven hours per day is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic conditions which could reduce life expectancy. So for a healthier longer life get some shut-eye

ICOM approves a new museum definition


On August 24th, in the framework of the 26th ICOM General Conference held in Prague, the ICOM Extraordinary General Assembly approved a new museum definition. The vote is the culmination of an 18-month participatory process that involved hundreds of museum professionals from 126 National Committees from all over the world. The new text reads:

“A museum is a not-for-profit, permanent institution in the service of society that researches, collects, conserves, interprets and exhibits tangible and intangible heritage. Open to the public, accessible and inclusive, museums foster diversity and sustainability. They operate and communicate ethically, professionally and with the participation of communities, offering varied experiences for education, enjoyment, reflection and knowledge sharing.”

How to build strong bones if you don’t eat meat


As new research shows vegetarians and vegans are at greater risk of hip fractures, here’s how a plant-based diet can aid skeletal strength

Which language does every country in the world want to learn?


Two ethnic revolts rack Ethiopia at the same time


After a brief stalemate, the civil war in Ethiopia may be poised to get even bloodier. A humanitarian truce to let food be brought to the besieged region of Tigray was broken on August 24th, raising fears of a return to all-out war in the north (see map). At the same time, rebellions around the western and southern edges of Ethiopia threaten to fragment the entire country. In particular, the Oromo Liberation Army (ola), a rebel group which says it is fighting for the self-determination of Ethiopia’s largest ethnic group, has been weakening the grip of the federal government which sits in Addis Ababa, the capital.[…]

Book Review: Why Nations Fail?

This book is premised on the institutional history of the world from a political economy’s perspective.

I found this book very compelling. This is a heavy read in terms of pages but easy & entertaining to read. It is very coherent with compelling arguments. It doesn’t leave any part of the world or history untouched generally. Writers discuss the Roman empire, Maya city-states, Ottoman Empire, African Empires, European Empires & down to the nation-states to prove their point. Highly recommended.


This is a very interesting question. Who wouldn’t want to know the answer? For this reason, I bought this book back in 2017 & wanted to know why. Since then it was on my bookshelf until some days ago I picked it up to read.[Shakir Ahmed Ali] This book is co-authored by Daron Acemoglu professor of economics at MIT & James Robinson British Economist.

So why do nations fail? Why Western Europe, North America & Japan are rich & more prosperous than Sub- Saharan African countries, South American, and South Asian countries? Do nations fail because of their geography? Culture? Ignorance? Or because European people are more intelligent than other people in poor countries? Not at all. Daron Acemoglu doesn’t believe in these theories. If you have read the popular book Guns, Germs & Steel by Jared Diamond that book was premised on geography thesis as the reason for prosperity & poverty of nations. Writers of this book debunked that geography theory as well as mentioned above.

Daron Acemoglu says If Geography, culture, or climate should have played a role in the poverty & prosperity of nations then there shouldn’t have been any differences between South Korea & North Korea. Both countries are so close, separated by a just border, yet so different. South Korea is rich, prosperous, with better living standards, education & health care. In contrast, North Korea is the opposite of it suffering in poverty & dictatorship.

So if not geography, culture & ignorance then what is it that leads countries to prosperity or poverty? Or why nations fail then.

Here comes the core of the book: Inclusive economic & political institutions & Extractive economic & political institutions. Rich, democratic, economically sound & stable countries have inclusive institutions while poor, unstable, absolute, or dictatorial have extractive institutions in place.

Inclusive institutions involve pluralism, broader political participation & economic opportunities in society for everybody, it allows innovation, entrepreneurship, property rights, rule of law, competition & accountability of leaders. Examples are Western democracies.

On the other hand, extractive institutions maintain the power of the narrow elite at the expense of society. Absolutist & repressive regimes thrive under this model. The narrow elite maintains economic monopolies to enrich themselves, ordinary people have no private property rights, political participation & economic opportunities. Controlling elite doesn’t like change because their power would be threatened by creative destruction so they resist inclusive institutions to take root & lead to democracy. Examples are European absolute monarchies of the time & Ottoman monarchies, sub-Saharan countries, and south Asian countries of today. European monarchies didn’t become prosperous until they gave up on extractive economic & political institutions in the 18th & 19th centuries & gradually marched towards inclusive institutions & democracy.

Countries with extractive institutions don’t encourage innovation & change because the narrow elite prefers the status quo it would always resist change. Ottoman empire banned printing press, Austro- Hungarian empire & Russian monarchy resisted railways & industrial Revolution in the fear of lest their power goes away if innovation & industrial Revolution is to be adopted. Because innovation & change overhaul the whole society & brings creative destruction. That’s why they remained behind those who adopted the Industrial Revolution & innovation.

Writers have researched for 15 years writing this book. Starting from the neolithic revolution about 10 thousand years ago to the 21st century. They found that inclusive economic & political institutions were the key that led to the prosperity of nations not the geography, culture, or ignorance instead institutions that made the difference. As North & South Korea example illustrates. While extractive economic & political institutions led to the absolutism, poverty & collapse of the countries. As of Today’s Sierra Leone a western African country illustrates.

This book is premised on the institutional history of the world from a political economy’s perspective.

I found this book very compelling. This is a heavy read in terms of pages but easy & entertaining to read. It is very coherent with compelling arguments. It doesn’t leave any part of the world or history untouched generally. Writers discuss the Roman empire, Maya city-states, Ottoman Empire, African Empires, European Empires & down to the nation-states to prove their point. Highly recommended…

Tasmania Documentary 4K | Wildlife | Australia Landscapes and Nature


Separated from Australia’s mainland 12,000 years ago, Tasmania is unlike any part of Australia. This documentary explores the natural beauty of Tasmania’s rugged wilderness and the animal inhabitants that live there. Narrated by Steve Chambers and presented in stunning 4K this documentary explores many of Tasmania’s stunning landscapes and natural inhabitants including shorebirds, Pied Oyster Catchers, Silver Gulls, Humpback Whales, Australian Fur Seals, Padamelons, Wombats, Bennet’s Wallaby, Tallus Grasshoppers, Northern Snow Skinks, Cape Barren Goose and Bruny Island’s famous White Wallaby. Also featured are the Mountain Ash, the Fagus Tree, Tasmanian Pencil Pines, and a variety of Tasmania’s native Fungi.

Marketing Planning Guide: For Professional Services Firms


Every professional services firm has to find new clients and new opportunities. So if you are a professional services executive, there is a good chance that you’ve been involved in the marketing planning process. You may be the person responsible for preparing your firm’s marketing plan. Or maybe you are part of a team tasked with planning next year’s marketing budget.

This Marketing Planning Guide for Professional Services Firms will introduce you to a process tailored to the realities of modern professional services firms. You will learn how to develop a thoughtful and effective plan, one grounded in ten years of research into the marketing habits of the fastest-growing firms.

Ready to get started? Let’s dive in! […]

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